Identification and control of the most dangerous s

2022-07-27
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Identification and control of major hazard installations

1 Safety conditions for energy storage of hazardous sources

first of all, we should consider what state the energy of hazardous sources is stored in. For example, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an essential substance for the production of some enterprises and the life of residents. Affected by economic conditions and people's living habits, it is exported, transported and stored in liquid form from the time it leaves the factory. For this liquid substance, we must master its flammability, explosion limit and the characteristics that it can expand 250 times rapidly in the atmosphere, and determine that it must be stored in closed steel containers. Therefore, the container for storing liquefied petroleum gas must be made of special container steel plate and special welding method. In order to prevent the explosion limit concentration caused by leakage, each weld must be inspected with X-ray film, and no leakage or leakage is allowed. This is the intrinsic safety requirement of storage equipment

secondly, considering the conventional state of energy storage of hazard sources, special attention should be paid to its conventional state when storing the material form of energy of hazard sources. For example, under normal circumstances, the raw material ammonium nitrate used in the production of explosives should be stored separately. The height of each column should not exceed 1.5m, and the width should not exceed the width of two bags. A channel greater than 0.8m should be reserved between columns to ensure that the mold surface can be kept in a clean shape and air circulation can be guaranteed forever. If several tons of ammonium nitrate are piled up in different stacks, the ammonium nitrate buried below may oxidize, decompose and release heat over time. A large amount of heat energy cannot be discharged, which speeds up the oxidation, decomposition and heat release process of ammonium nitrate, resulting in spontaneous combustion and even explosion

thirdly, consider the purity of the energy carrier of the hazard source. The energy is stored by the carrier. The purity of the carrier itself is an important indicator of the safety performance of an extremely large and strong advanced basic material. For example, the explosive used in explosive operation is a material with great potential. The proportion of its own various raw materials and the amount of temperature, humidity and dregs in the production process are important indicators to ensure its safety performance. Especially for the ammonium nitrate explosive containing TNT raw material, the problem of its purity will lead to the occurrence of early explosion accident during explosive operation

2. Unsafe factors affecting energy storage of hazard sources

in addition to the factors of hazard sources themselves, there are many unsafe factors affecting the reverse transformation of energy of hazard sources. These unsafe factors include physical, chemical and artificial factors

physical factors include the invasion of external forces, temperature rise and fall, light irradiation, etc., which may promote the destructive power of energy conversion for many hazard sources. For example, liquefied petroleum gas storage tank can only be stored at 80% of its capacity under normal circumstances. Once it is in the high temperature state in summer, the liquid petroleum gas will volatilize, and part of the liquid petroleum gas will be transformed into gas, which will increase the pressure on the tank wall. In case of defects such as false welding and sand holes in a weld, the tank will break and leak a lot

there are also a lot of chemical factors. For example, oxygen pipes used in iron and steel production are strictly prohibited from contacting with grease; Acetylene gas used for welding and heat treatment shall not contact with copper devices, which may cause combustion and explosion. Oxygen can rapidly oxidize the grease, generate a large amount of heat energy and burn. Acetylene gas contacts with copper devices to generate acetylene copper, which will cause explosion if it is slightly affected by external force

people's unsafe behaviors occur from time to time, which is also an important factor affecting the safety of hazard installations. Whether the operator abides by the safety technical regulations and carefully operates during the operation is a key to the safety of hazard sources. According to the statistics of relevant departments, more than 80% of major accidents come from people's unsafe behaviors. For example, on march30,1995, when the automobile driver of Maanshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. was driving under the condition that the car tipped over, his height must exceed the normal vehicle operation height. In the future, the demand for vanadium will increase exponentially, resulting in the fracture of gas management, a large number of gas leaks, and the occurrence of gas poisoning accidents. It can be seen that human factors have a great impact on the safe operation of major hazard sources

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